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How sleeping less than 6 hours affects your health After being awake for almost 14-16 hours, our body demands sleep. Minimum sleeping time required for a healthy mind and body is 7-8 hours. Although, this duration varies according to age. Because generally speaking, where a child can sleep for 12-14 hours, grownups can sleep for not more than 9 hours. Sound sleep is very essential otherwise, it can be harmful for our health. Let’s see how sleeping for less than 6 hours affects our health. Headache, weight gain and poor vision: When you sleep for less than 6 hours a day, it can not only give you headache all the time but can lead to a poor vision also. And if continued for a long time, may hamper your eyesight. The lesser you sleep the more weight you gain. And after-effects of gaining weight could be even more hazardous. Memory loss, heart disease, infection: Sleeplessness can have an adverse effect on one’s memory too. A person may find it difficult to remember even simple things. Also, infections can take a longer time to heal because sleep is something that stabilises and balances everything that goes wrong while we are awake. If we don’t get proper sleep, the process of healing takes longer. Lack of sleep can also elevate blood pressure which ultimately affects the heart. Urine overproduction, stammering and accident: Sleeping slows down urinating process but when you are awake for longer hours, you might have to urinate more than usual. Lack of sleep can also make you stammer while speaking. If lack of sleep continues, you may not be able to communicate properly. When you do not have sound sleep, your mental condition would not be stable because of declining concentration. You can be accident prone if you drive in such a condition. These are just a few of the ill effects. Sleeping for less than 5 hours is far more dangerous than you can even think. From behavioural to mental to physical effects, it can harm you in many more ways, So, have a sound sleep to avoid complications in life.
THE BEST CARDIOLOGISTS IN YELAHANKA Aortic regurgitation The incompetent aortic valve allows regurgitation of blood from the aorta to the left ventricle during diastole for as long as the aortic diastolic pressure exceeds the left ventricular diastolic pressure. Symptoms: Occur in the late stages of disease and include exertional dyspnoea, fatigue, palpitations (hyperdynamic circulation) and exertional angina. General signs: Marfan’s syndrome may be obvious. The pulse and blood pressure: The pulse is characteristically collapsing; there may be a wide pulse pressure. The neck: Prominent carotid pulsations (Corrigan’s sign). Palpation: The apex beat is characteristically displaced and hyperkinetic. A diastolic thrill may be felt at the left sternal edge when the patient sits up and breathes out. Auscultation): A2 (the aortic component of the second heart sound) may be soft; a decrescendo high-pitched diastolic murmur beginning immediately after the second heart sound and extending for a variable time into diastole—it is loudest at the third and fourth left intercostal spaces; a systolic ejection murmur is usually present (due to associated aortic stenosis or to torrential flow across a normal diameter aortic valve). Signs indicating severe chronic aortic regurgitation: Collapsing pulse; wide pulse pressure; long decrescendo diastolic murmur; left ventricular S3 (third heart sound); soft A2; signs of left ventricular failure. Causes of chronic aortic regurgitation: (i) Rheumatic (rarely the only murmur in this case), congenital; (ii) aortic root dilatation—Marfan’s syndrome, dissecting aneurysm. 8• THE PATIENT WITH A MURMUR 305 a b Valve cusps often thickened and calcified Left ventricle may be hypertrophied Ascending aorta may be dilated Systole Diastole S1 A2 P2 S1 Ejection click (Suggests congenital AS) Normal Mild S1 S1 Moderate S1 P2 A2 S1 Severe Reversed S2 Single (S2)
HEART SPECIALISTS IN SILKBOARD BANGALORE Detected vascular abnormalities Calcium scoring High-resolution CT scanners can measure calcium within the coronary arteries in a single breath-hold scan. The measured calcium is given a number, the Agatston score. The presence of calcium within a coronary artery is a marker of coronary disease but not of obstructive disease. It does not give any information about the presence of soft plaque, which is more likely to be associated with an acute coronary event but a 0 score predicts a very low coronary risk. A high score has been shown to be an independent risk factor for future events.29 Prospective studies proving the value of calcium scoring have not been performed. Calcium scoring is likely to be superseded by multi-slice CT coronary angiography which can produce images of the coronary lumen and generate a calcium score. An elevated calcium score in an asymptomatic patient is probably best treated as an indication for aggressive risk factor management; for example, instituting statin treatment for a marginally elevated cholesterol level. Intima-media thickness High-frequency ultrasound transducers can measure accurately the thickness of the carotid intima up to its interface with the media. An intima-media thickness (IMT) of > 1.3 mm is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, which remains significant after allowing for other risk factors. Ankle brachial index The ankle brachial index (ABI) is relatively easy to measure with a sphygmomanometer and a Doppler ultrasound device. The systolic blood pressure in the arm and in the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries is compared. An ABI of < 0.9 means a stenosis of at least 50% somewhere between the aorta and the foot. The test is a reliable sign of peripheral arterial disease and thus also coronary disease. Erectile dysfunction Erectile dysfunction is a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Because the penile arteries are smaller (1–2 mm) than the carotids (5–7 mm) and coronary arteries (3 mm), plaque burden and endothelial dysfunction may cause symptoms earlier here than in the other territories
DCardiologist in Vidyaranyapura, Bangalore • etected vascular abnormalities Calcium scoring High-resolution CT scanners can measure calcium within the coronary arteries in a single breath-hold scan. The measured calcium is given a number, the Agatston score. The presence of calcium within a coronary artery is a marker of coronary disease but not of obstructive disease. It does not give any information about the presence of soft plaque, which is more likely to be associated with an acute coronary event but a 0 score predicts a very low coronary risk. A high score has been shown to be an independent risk factor for future events.29 Prospective studies proving the value of calcium scoring have not been performed. Calcium scoring is likely to be superseded by multi-slice CT coronary angiography (p. 136), which can produce images of the coronary lumen and generate a calcium score. An elevated calcium score in an asymptomatic patient is probably best treated as an indication for aggressive risk factor management; for example, instituting statin treatment for a marginally elevated cholesterol level. Intima-media thickness High-frequency ultrasound transducers can measure accurately the thickness of the carotid intima up to its interface with the media. An intima-media thickness (IMT) of > 1.3 mm is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, which remains significant after allowing for other risk factors. Ankle brachial index The ankle brachial index (ABI) is relatively easy to measure with a sphygmomanometer and a Doppler ultrasound device. The systolic blood pressure in the arm and in the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries is compared. An ABI of < 0.9 means a stenosis of at least 50% somewhere between the aorta and the foot. The test is a reliable sign of peripheral arterial disease and thus also coronary disease. Erectile dysfunction Erectile dysfunction is a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Because the penile arteries are smaller (1–2 mm) than the carotids (5–7 mm) and coronary arteries (3 mm), plaque burden and endothelial dysfunction may cause symptoms earlier here than in the other territories. hsCRP measurements and risk of vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome) Low risk Intermediate High hsCRP level < 1 mg/L 1–3 mg/L > 3 mg/L Note: levels > 10 mg/L suggest acute inflammation and should be repeated after a few week In some studies erectile dysfunction has reliably preceded symptomatic coronary disease in twothirds of patients by an average of three years.30 A history of this problem in men indicates an increased risk of vascular events. It is strongly associated with other risk factors such as smoking and diabetes but remains significant after allowing for these. Infectious agents There is continuing mild interest in the role of infection in promoting atherosclerosis and especially unstable coronary syndromes. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori are commonly found in atheromatous plaques. It is possible one or more infectious agents could be the stimulus that sets off the inflammatory process that changes plaque structure, weakens the fibrous cap and unleashes the coagulation cascade that occludes the vessel. The ACADEMIC study was not associated with a reduction in early coronary events
DCardiologist in Vidyaranyapura, Bangalore • etected vascular abnormalities Calcium scoring High-resolution CT scanners can measure calcium within the coronary arteries in a single breath-hold scan. The measured calcium is given a number, the Agatston score. The presence of calcium within a coronary artery is a marker of coronary disease but not of obstructive disease. It does not give any information about the presence of soft plaque, which is more likely to be associated with an acute coronary event but a 0 score predicts a very low coronary risk. A high score has been shown to be an independent risk factor for future events.29 Prospective studies proving the value of calcium scoring have not been performed. Calcium scoring is likely to be superseded by multi-slice CT coronary angiography (p. 136), which can produce images of the coronary lumen and generate a calcium score. An elevated calcium score in an asymptomatic patient is probably best treated as an indication for aggressive risk factor management; for example, instituting statin treatment for a marginally elevated cholesterol level. Intima-media thickness High-frequency ultrasound transducers can measure accurately the thickness of the carotid intima up to its interface with the media. An intima-media thickness (IMT) of > 1.3 mm is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, which remains significant after allowing for other risk factors. Ankle brachial index The ankle brachial index (ABI) is relatively easy to measure with a sphygmomanometer and a Doppler ultrasound device. The systolic blood pressure in the arm and in the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries is compared. An ABI of < 0.9 means a stenosis of at least 50% somewhere between the aorta and the foot. The test is a reliable sign of peripheral arterial disease and thus also coronary disease. Erectile dysfunction Erectile dysfunction is a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Because the penile arteries are smaller (1–2 mm) than the carotids (5–7 mm) and coronary arteries (3 mm), plaque burden and endothelial dysfunction may cause symptoms earlier here than in the other territories. hsCRP measurements and risk of vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome) Low risk Intermediate High hsCRP level < 1 mg/L 1–3 mg/L > 3 mg/L Note: levels > 10 mg/L suggest acute inflammation and should be repeated after a few week In some studies erectile dysfunction has reliably preceded symptomatic coronary disease in twothirds of patients by an average of three years.30 A history of this problem in men indicates an increased risk of vascular events. It is strongly associated with other risk factors such as smoking and diabetes but remains significant after allowing for these. Infectious agents There is continuing mild interest in the role of infection in promoting atherosclerosis and especially unstable coronary syndromes. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori are commonly found in atheromatous plaques. It is possible one or more infectious agents could be the stimulus that sets off the inflammatory process that changes plaque structure, weakens the fibrous cap and unleashes the coagulation cascade that occludes the vessel. The ACADEMIC study was not associated with a reduction in early coronary events
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