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the best doctors near me Risk factors associated with DVT: Deep vein thrombosis is further classified as proximal DVT and distal DVT. Proximal DVT mostly occurs in the popliteal vein and is found to be associated with active cancer, respiratory insufficiency and congestive cardiac failure. It is more prominent in patients with age above 75 years. On the other hand, distal DVT frequently occurs in the calf vein and is mostly associated with any recent surgery and immobilization. In comparison to distal DVT, proximal DVT is more responsible for fatal pulmonary embolism . In addition to this, some of the other factors associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) complications are persistent elevation of D-dimer, elevated levels of interleukin-8 in patients, oral contraceptive pills containing third-generation progestins etc. Genetic factors are also found to be associated with DVT. It includes deficiency of antithrombin, protein C, protein S
best heart doctors An 83-year-old man was evaluated for frequent palpitations. During an episode, examination of the neck revealed rapid and regular pulsations with bulging of the internal jugular veins .A 12-lead electrocardiogram was obtained and showed a regular, narrow-complex tachycardia, with narrow P waves deforming the terminal QRS complex (Panel A, arrowheads). The P wave is negative in the inferior leads (forming a pseudo-S wave) and positive in lead V1 (forming a pseudo-r′ wave). On the application of pressure to the carotid sinus, the tachycardia and the bulging of the internal jugular veins were resolved .and sinus rhythm was restored. The characteristics of the arrhythmia were suggestive of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, a functional reentrant arrhythmia localized to the AV junction. In its typical form, anterograde conduction occurs over the slow pathway to the ventricle, while near-simultaneous atrial activation occurs over the fast pathway of the AV node. These events lead to the parallel electrical activation of the atria and ventricles. Canon A waves result from the simultaneous contraction of the atria and ventricles against closed atrioventricular valves, causing a reflux of blood into the neck veins.
HEART SPECIALISTS IN SILKBOARD Complex congenital heart disease: conduits Anatomy and physiology Babies with a very abnormal right ventricular outflow tract such as pulmonary atresia can have a conduit fashioned to direct blood from the systemic veins more directly to the pulmonary arterial circulation or from a systemic artery to the pulmonary circulation. These conduits are made from veins or occasionally from Gortex. 368 PRACTICAL CARDIOLOGY Complications Conduits of all types have a limited life and tend to deteriorate after 10 years. These patients are also at risk of ventricular arrhythmias and heart block. Follow-up Patients need regular expert echocardiography to assess the conduit function. The conduit may deteriorate significantly before symptoms occur. Further treatment Conduit deterioration is usually an indication for further surgery although it can occasionally be treated with balloon dilatation. Pregnancy and contraception Pregnancy is well tolerated in patients with good conduit function. There are no particular problems with contraception. Sports Patients should avoid competitive and contact sports.
Hypertensive retinopathy I Silver wiring of arteries II AV nipping (sclerotic arteries pressing on veins) III Haemorrhages and exudates IV Papilloedema associated with encephalopathy
Hypertensive retinopathy I Silver wiring of arteries II AV nipping (sclerotic arteries pressing on veins) III Haemorrhages and exudates IV Papilloedema associated with encephalopathy
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