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CARDIOLOGIST IN DODDABOMMASANDRA, BANGALORE Cardiac rehabilitation Although rehabilitation has been a part of the management of patients following a myocardial infarction since the beginning of the last century, ideas have changed radically about the form this should take. In the early 1900s Sir Thomas Lewis insisted his patients remain in bed and be ‘guarded by day and night nursing and helped in every way to avoid voluntary movement or effort’. These severe restrictions were continued for at least six to eight weeks. The thinking was that complete rest would reduce the risk of aneurysm formation and avoid hypoxia that might cause arrhythmias. Even after discharge mild exertion was discouraged for up to a year and return to work was most unusual. In the 1970s periods of bed rest of between one and four weeks were enforced and patients remained in hospital for up to four weeks. It is now clear that this de-conditioning has many adverse physical and psychological effects. Patients with uncomplicated infarcts are now mobilised in hospital within a day or so of admission and are often discharged on the third day if successful primary angioplasty has been performed. Many hospitals provide a supervised rehabilitation program for patients who have had an infarct or episode of unstable angina. The program begins in hospital as soon as possible after admission. It includes a graded exercise regimen and advice about risk factor control. Such programs have many benefits for patients to help them to return quickly to normal life, including work and sexual activity. The supervised exercise regimen helps restore the patient’s confidence. There is clear evidence of the benefits of exercise for patients with ischaemic heart disease.54 Rehabilitation programs have been shown to be cost-effective. Well-conducted programs are tailored to individual patients’ needs and are very popular with many patients.55 There are often long-term exercise groups available for people who have completed the formal classes. Non-cardiac causes of chest pain Pulmonary embolism
THE BEST CARDIOLOGISTS IN YELAHANKA A systematic description of ECGs The following eight short steps will enable most ECGs to be described correctly: 1 Check the paper speed and calibration markers. 2 Measure or estimate the heart rate. 3 Estimate the rhythm. 4 Look for P waves. 5 Measure the PR interval. 6 Examine the QRS complex. 7 Check the ST segment. 8 Measure the T wave. ECG interpretation should always be as restrained as practicable, taking into account the clinical context where known and comparison with previous tracings where possible. The possibility of Prinzmetal’s electrocardiographic heart disease must always be borne in mind—that is, do not assume that an abnormal ECG always means heart disease.2.
How sleeping less than 6 hours affects your health After being awake for almost 14-16 hours, our body demands sleep. Minimum sleeping time required for a healthy mind and body is 7-8 hours. Although, this duration varies according to age. Because generally speaking, where a child can sleep for 12-14 hours, grownups can sleep for not more than 9 hours. Sound sleep is very essential otherwise, it can be harmful for our health. Let’s see how sleeping for less than 6 hours affects our health. Headache, weight gain and poor vision: When you sleep for less than 6 hours a day, it can not only give you headache all the time but can lead to a poor vision also. And if continued for a long time, may hamper your eyesight. The lesser you sleep the more weight you gain. And after-effects of gaining weight could be even more hazardous. Memory loss, heart disease, infection: Sleeplessness can have an adverse effect on one’s memory too. A person may find it difficult to remember even simple things. Also, infections can take a longer time to heal because sleep is something that stabilises and balances everything that goes wrong while we are awake. If we don’t get proper sleep, the process of healing takes longer. Lack of sleep can also elevate blood pressure which ultimately affects the heart. Urine overproduction, stammering and accident: Sleeping slows down urinating process but when you are awake for longer hours, you might have to urinate more than usual. Lack of sleep can also make you stammer while speaking. If lack of sleep continues, you may not be able to communicate properly. When you do not have sound sleep, your mental condition would not be stable because of declining concentration. You can be accident prone if you drive in such a condition. These are just a few of the ill effects. Sleeping for less than 5 hours is far more dangerous than you can even think. From behavioural to mental to physical effects, it can harm you in many more ways, So, have a sound sleep to avoid complications in life.
THE BEST HEART SPECIALISTS IN BANGALORE Angioplasty Balloon dilatation of coronary artery stenoses was first performed in the late 1970s by Andreas Grunzig. The technique has undergone many refinements and is now widely used for the treatment of angina not responding to medical treatment. Angioplasty has not been shown to improve the prognosis of patients with stable angina. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has similarly not been shown to prolong life for most stable angina patients. However, both treatments are very successful in relieving the symptoms of angina. The COURAGE Trial compared optimal medical treatment of angina with angioplasty but excluded patients with symptoms refractory to medical treatment.1 Not surprisingly, this group of stable mild angina patients had a similar outcome with angioplasty and medical treatment. The trial suggests that compared with optimal medical treatment, angioplasty is a safe and slightly more effective treatment for stable angina. Patients can make an informed choice between these two treatments. The majority of patients treated with angioplasty in Australia have acute coronary syndromes and here there is good evidence of prognostic benefit with angioplasty compared with medical treatment. In many centres one-, two- and complicated three-vessel disease are managed this way. It has been shown to be as effective as coronary surgery for these patients but at the price of a higher rate of re-intervention. This is because the greatest limitation of angioplasty is the rate of restenosis in vessels that have been dilated. Restenosis
CARDIOLOGIST IN YELAHANKA SECOND DEGREE AV BLICK There are two basic types of second-degree AV block: AV nodal Möbitz type I (Wenckebach) heart block, and the more distal and more sinister Möbitz type II heart block. Möbitz type I heart block is much more common. In Möbitz type I block the PR interval lengthens progressively with each cardiac cycle, until an atrial wave is not conducted. There is recovery of conduction and the next a wave is conducted with a shorter interval and the cycle begins again. The QRS complex is narrow (Fig 3.10) (unless associated with pre-existing BBB). The increment is largest between the first and second conducted P wave, and the PR interval continues to increase by less and less until a P wave is dropped. Möbitz type II heart block is almost always associated with a BBB (Fig 3.11), since its origin is intraventricular (below the AV node), and it tends to lapse suddenly into extreme bradycardia or asystole. It tends to be over-diagnosed, especially in the setting of 2:1 AV block (Fig 3.12). There is no lengthening of the PR interval before an atrial wave is not conducted. At times, atropine or exercise can demonstrate the site of the block, by increasing the block from 2:1 to a higher grade when the underlying mechanism is Möbitz II. Conversely, Wenckebach conduction may improve to 3:2 or better. For a distinction to be made between Möbitz type I and Möbitz type II, at least two consecutively conducted P waves have to be evaluated. This is impossible in 2:1 conduction (block) and can only be reported as 2:1 AV block (Fig 3.12). Yet this is very commonly reported as