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How sleeping less than 6 hours affects your health After being awake for almost 14-16 hours, our body demands sleep. Minimum sleeping time required for a healthy mind and body is 7-8 hours. Although, this duration varies according to age. Because generally speaking, where a child can sleep for 12-14 hours, grownups can sleep for not more than 9 hours. Sound sleep is very essential otherwise, it can be harmful for our health. Let’s see how sleeping for less than 6 hours affects our health. Headache, weight gain and poor vision: When you sleep for less than 6 hours a day, it can not only give you headache all the time but can lead to a poor vision also. And if continued for a long time, may hamper your eyesight. The lesser you sleep the more weight you gain. And after-effects of gaining weight could be even more hazardous. Memory loss, heart disease, infection: Sleeplessness can have an adverse effect on one’s memory too. A person may find it difficult to remember even simple things. Also, infections can take a longer time to heal because sleep is something that stabilises and balances everything that goes wrong while we are awake. If we don’t get proper sleep, the process of healing takes longer. Lack of sleep can also elevate blood pressure which ultimately affects the heart. Urine overproduction, stammering and accident: Sleeping slows down urinating process but when you are awake for longer hours, you might have to urinate more than usual. Lack of sleep can also make you stammer while speaking. If lack of sleep continues, you may not be able to communicate properly. When you do not have sound sleep, your mental condition would not be stable because of declining concentration. You can be accident prone if you drive in such a condition. These are just a few of the ill effects. Sleeping for less than 5 hours is far more dangerous than you can even think. From behavioural to mental to physical effects, it can harm you in many more ways, So, have a sound sleep to avoid complications in life.
PAPULAR CARDIOLOGISTS IN HEBBALA ECG interpretation: points to remember 1 ECG reports should be short and based on clinical information where possible. 2 Check that the patient’s name is on the ECG and that the paper speed and calibration markers are correct. 3 Measure or estimate the heart rate—3 large squares = 100/minute. 4 Establish the rhythm. Look for P waves (best seen in L2). Are the P waves followed by QRS complexes? Look for anomalously conducted or ectopic beats. 5 Measure the intervals: PR, QRS duration and QT interval (for the latter, consult tables, but normal is less than 50% of the RR interval). 6 If the QRS complex is wide (> 3 small squares) consider the possibilities: LBBB, RBBB, WPW or ventricular rhythm or beats. If the pattern is of LBBB, there is no need in most cases to attempt further interpretation. 7 Estimate the QRS axis. In LAD, L1 and aVF diverge and L2 is predominantly negative. In RAD, L1 and aVF converge, while L2 matters little. Indeterminate axis is diagnosed when all six frontal leads are (more or less) equiphasic. 8 Check whether the criteria for LAHB or LAFB have been met. 9 Look for pathological Q waves. In general these are longer than 0.04 seconds and are more than 25% of the size of the following R wave.
THE BEST CARDIOLOGISTS IN YELAHANKAMedical treatment of stable angina Treatment of any disease must begin with a thorough explanation of the likely diagnosis, severity and prognosis. The possible investigations required and steps to be taken if symptoms persist despite treatment should be outlined. A warning (firm, but not alarming) should be given that a prolonged episode of chest pain (more than about 15 minutes) should prompt the patient to get to a hospital without delay. This may also be the first opportunity to speak to the patient about the control of risk factors (e.g. smoking, hyperlipidaemia) that will be important for the long-term prognosis. Risk factor assessment should form part of this initial consultation and include a request for measurement of the serum lipids . a b (a) An MDCT scan of a diseased right coronary artery and the corresponding coronary angiogram (b) An MDCT reconstructed image of the heart and great vessels 140 PRACTICAL CARDIOLOGY A patient with symptoms typical of angina but who seems stable enough not to need admission to hospital should be started on treatment while awaiting investigations to confirm the diagnosis (usually stress testing). Treatment should aim to improve symptoms and, if possible, improve the prognosis (i.e. reduce the risk of unstable angina, infarction or death). Some drugs that help control the symptoms of angina may also improve the prognosis; other treatment may help the longer-term outlook by improving risk factors. Anti-platelet
POPULAR CARDIOLOGIST IN AMRUTHA HALLI , BANGALORE Assessment of patients with hypertension A patient with definite or possible newly diagnosed hypertension needs at least a basic clinical assessment to look for possible aetiology, severity and signs of complications. The history Questioning should be directed towards the following areas. 1 Past history. Has hypertension been diagnosed before? What treatment was instituted? Why was it stopped? 2 Secondary causes. Important questions relate to: • a history of renal disease in the patient or his or her family, recurrent urinary tract infec-­ tions, heavy analgesic use or conditions leading to renal disease (e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)) • symptoms suggesting phaeochromocytoma (flushing, sweats, palpitations) • symptoms suggesting sleep apnoea • muscle weakness suggesting the hypokalaemia of hyperaldosteronism • Cushing’s syndrome (weight gain, skin changes) • family history of hypertension. 3 Aggravating factors: • high salt intake • high alcohol intake • lack of exercise • use of medications: NSAIDs, appetite suppressants, nasal decongestants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, ergotamine, cyclosporin, oestrogen-containing contraceptive pills • other: use of cocaine, liquorice, amphetamines. 4 Target organ damage: • stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) • angina, dyspnoea • fatigue, oliguria • visual disturbance • claudication. 5 Coexisting risk factors: • smoking • diabetes • lipid levels, if known
BEST CARDIOLOGY HOSPITALS IN BANGALORE Cardiac failure Cardiac failure is an increasingly common condition affecting about 1% of the population but much higher proportions of older people. It is responsible for an increasing number of hospital admissions. The various aetiologies have been discussed above, but the most common cause is now ischaemic heart disease rather than hypertensive heart disease. This reflects the improved modern management of hypertension in the population. The definition of heart failure has always included reference to the inability of the heart to meet the metabolic needs of the body. The earliest concepts of heart failure were of inadequate cardiac pump function and associated salt and water retention. Treatment was aimed at improving cardiac contractility and removing salt and water from the body. In the 1970s the concept of after-load reduction was introduced. This was based partly on the realisation that vasoconstriction was part of the problem. This has led to the modern neuro-hormonal concept of heart failure. It is clear that many of the features of cardiac failure are a result of stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic stimulation. These responses of the body to the fall in cardiac output temporarily increase cardiac performance and blood pressure by increasing vascular volumes, cardiac contractility and systemic resistance. In the medium and longer term these responses are maladaptive. They increase cardiac work and left ventricular volumes and lead to myocardial fibrosis with further loss of myocytes. Most recently it has become clear that heart failure is also an inflammatory condition, with evidence of cytokine activation. Work is underway to establish a role for treatment of this part of the condition. Current drug treatment has been successful in blocking many of the maladaptive aspects of neuro-hormonal stimulation. Many of these treatments have become established after benefits have been ascertained in large randomised controlled trials. These trials have also led to the abandoning of certain drugs (often those that increase cardiac performance) that were shown to have a detrimental effect on survival (e.g. Milrinone). The principles of treatment of heart failure are as follows: 1 Remove the exacerbating factors. 2 Relieve fluid retention. 3 Improve left ventricular function and reduce cardiac work; improve prognosis. 4 Protect against the adverse effects of drug treatment. 5 Assess for further management (e.g. revascularisation, transplant). 6 Manage complications (e.g. arrhythmias). 7 Protect high-risk patients from sudden death.
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