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Ischaemic heart disease. Coronary artery disease, also known as ischaemic heart disease, is caused by atherosclerosis – a build-up of fatty material along the inner walls of the arteries. These fatty deposits known as atherosclerotic plaques narrow the coronary arteries, and if severe may reduce blood flow to the heart ...
CARDIAC CENTERS IN YELAHANKA NEW TOWN BANGALORE ST segment There are two aspects to report: depression and elevation. Depression The ST segment is said to be abnormal if it slopes down 1 mm or more from the J point—the end of the QRS complex (downsloping depression)—or is depressed 1 mm or more horizontally (plane depression). Depression of the J point itself may be normal, especially during exercise, but this upsloping ST depression should return to the isoelectric line within 0.08 seconds. The isoelectric line is defined as the PR or TP segment of the ECG . ST depression may be due to ischaemia, the effect of digoxin, hypertrophy and so on. Elevation ST elevation of up to 3 mm may be normal in V leads (especially the right), and up to 1 mm may be normal in limb leads. This ST elevation is called early repolarisation syndrome or pattern. Otherwise ST elevation may mean an acute myocardial infarction where it is said to represent a current of injury. Pericarditis also causes ST elevation but unlike infarction is usually associated with concave upwards elevation. hypertrophy and conduction defects like LBBB can be associated with ST elevation in leads where the QRS is mostly negative. T waves The T wave is always inverted in lead aVR and often in L3 and V1–V2, and in aVL if the R wave is less than 5 mm tall. Inversion and flattening are common and non-specific findings. Deep (> 5 mm) symmetrical and persistent (days to weeks) inversion is consistent with infarction; broad, ‘giant’ inversion may follow syncope from any cause including cerebrovascular accidents. Like the ST segment, the T wave tends to be directed opposite to the main QRS deflection in conduction defects (e.g. LBBB), VEBs or ventricular hypertrophy (where it is described as secondary ST/T changes or strain pattern). Tall peaked T waves are most often seen as a reciprocal change to inferior or posterior infarcts. They are classically seen in patients with hyperkalaemia. Broader large T waves are seen in early (‘hyperacute’) infarction and sometimes in cerebrovascular accidents. While not diagnostic by themselves (T waves never are), when they are associated with modest ST elevation (especially in V3) and reciprocal depression in the inferior leads, they indicate infarction or ischaemia. When these changes evolve over time they are even more specific for infarction . A U wave may be prominent in patients with hypokalaemia, LVH and bradycardia. Isolated U inversion is a specific but insensitive sign of coronary disease. 54 PRACTICAL CARDIOLOGY ECG reports Reports should be short and stereotyped, with the description clearly separated from the comment. It is a good general strategy to under-report, especially for a beginner. It is generally wiser to state ‘inferior Q waves noted’ or ‘non-specific ST/T changes’ than to indulge in speculation on possible or probable infarction or ischaemia. ECG labels tend to have serious employment and insurance implications. On the other hand, specific questions on the request form must be addressed, since they constitute the reason for taking the ECG in the first place.
The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers.
heart doctors near me Facts about alcohol and heart health Studies have shown that alcohol can have a good or bad impact depending on how much you drink. Should you enjoy that glass of wine with dinner? Is it okay to relax with a cold beer? When it comes to your heart health, the answer is not clear. The existing research is quite conflicting — some studies say alcohol improves heart health, while others imply the reverse. So, what's the truth "It comes down to moderation a preventive cardiologist with Harvard-affiliated Division of Aging and VA Boston. "A safe amount — about one drink per day — may support a healthy heart and lower your risk of heart disease, while too much can be damaging."
DIABETIC DOCTORS NEAR ME Diabetes meal planning methods The diabetes plate method uses the image of a standard, 9-inch dinner plate as a way for individuals to plan their meals. In this approach, a plate is divided as follows: 50 percent non-starchy vegetables 25 percent protein 25 percent high-fiber carbohydrates Limited amounts of monounsaturated fats, such as olive and canola oils and avocado, and polyunsaturated fats, such as sesame seeds or nuts, can be used to prepare or accompany foods, such as fish or vegetables. Counting carbohydrates is another effective way to develop a healthful diabetes meal plan. This approach is used when people with diabetes have worked with a healthcare professional to determine how many carbohydrates they can safely eat each day, and the right amount to eat at each meal.