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Ischaemic heart disease. Coronary artery disease, also known as ischaemic heart disease, is caused by atherosclerosis – a build-up of fatty material along the inner walls of the arteries. These fatty deposits known as atherosclerotic plaques narrow the coronary arteries, and if severe may reduce blood flow to the heart ...
CARDIAC CENTERS IN YELAHANKA NEW TOWN BANGALORE ST segment There are two aspects to report: depression and elevation. Depression The ST segment is said to be abnormal if it slopes down 1 mm or more from the J point—the end of the QRS complex (downsloping depression)—or is depressed 1 mm or more horizontally (plane depression). Depression of the J point itself may be normal, especially during exercise, but this upsloping ST depression should return to the isoelectric line within 0.08 seconds. The isoelectric line is defined as the PR or TP segment of the ECG . ST depression may be due to ischaemia, the effect of digoxin, hypertrophy and so on. Elevation ST elevation of up to 3 mm may be normal in V leads (especially the right), and up to 1 mm may be normal in limb leads. This ST elevation is called early repolarisation syndrome or pattern. Otherwise ST elevation may mean an acute myocardial infarction where it is said to represent a current of injury. Pericarditis also causes ST elevation but unlike infarction is usually associated with concave upwards elevation. hypertrophy and conduction defects like LBBB can be associated with ST elevation in leads where the QRS is mostly negative. T waves The T wave is always inverted in lead aVR and often in L3 and V1–V2, and in aVL if the R wave is less than 5 mm tall. Inversion and flattening are common and non-specific findings. Deep (> 5 mm) symmetrical and persistent (days to weeks) inversion is consistent with infarction; broad, ‘giant’ inversion may follow syncope from any cause including cerebrovascular accidents. Like the ST segment, the T wave tends to be directed opposite to the main QRS deflection in conduction defects (e.g. LBBB), VEBs or ventricular hypertrophy (where it is described as secondary ST/T changes or strain pattern). Tall peaked T waves are most often seen as a reciprocal change to inferior or posterior infarcts. They are classically seen in patients with hyperkalaemia. Broader large T waves are seen in early (‘hyperacute’) infarction and sometimes in cerebrovascular accidents. While not diagnostic by themselves (T waves never are), when they are associated with modest ST elevation (especially in V3) and reciprocal depression in the inferior leads, they indicate infarction or ischaemia. When these changes evolve over time they are even more specific for infarction . A U wave may be prominent in patients with hypokalaemia, LVH and bradycardia. Isolated U inversion is a specific but insensitive sign of coronary disease. 54 PRACTICAL CARDIOLOGY ECG reports Reports should be short and stereotyped, with the description clearly separated from the comment. It is a good general strategy to under-report, especially for a beginner. It is generally wiser to state ‘inferior Q waves noted’ or ‘non-specific ST/T changes’ than to indulge in speculation on possible or probable infarction or ischaemia. ECG labels tend to have serious employment and insurance implications. On the other hand, specific questions on the request form must be addressed, since they constitute the reason for taking the ECG in the first place.
The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers.
heart doctors near me Facts about alcohol and heart health Studies have shown that alcohol can have a good or bad impact depending on how much you drink. Should you enjoy that glass of wine with dinner? Is it okay to relax with a cold beer? When it comes to your heart health, the answer is not clear. The existing research is quite conflicting — some studies say alcohol improves heart health, while others imply the reverse. So, what's the truth "It comes down to moderation a preventive cardiologist with Harvard-affiliated Division of Aging and VA Boston. "A safe amount — about one drink per day — may support a healthy heart and lower your risk of heart disease, while too much can be damaging."
DIABETIC DOCTORS NEAR ME Diabetes meal planning methods The diabetes plate method uses the image of a standard, 9-inch dinner plate as a way for individuals to plan their meals. In this approach, a plate is divided as follows: 50 percent non-starchy vegetables 25 percent protein 25 percent high-fiber carbohydrates Limited amounts of monounsaturated fats, such as olive and canola oils and avocado, and polyunsaturated fats, such as sesame seeds or nuts, can be used to prepare or accompany foods, such as fish or vegetables. Counting carbohydrates is another effective way to develop a healthful diabetes meal plan. This approach is used when people with diabetes have worked with a healthcare professional to determine how many carbohydrates they can safely eat each day, and the right amount to eat at each meal.
diabetic doctors near me Here are some guidelines for healthy eating: Healthy eating for diabetes is healthy eating for the whole family. Enjoy having regular meals, starting with breakfast first, then lunch and dinner. Space meals no more than 6 hours apart. Eat a variety of foods in each meal, including healthy fats, lean meats or proteins, whole grains and low-fat dairy. Choose fiber rich foods such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains as much as possible, like brown bread, bran cereals, whole wheat pasta and brown rice. Explore alternatives to meat such as lentils, beans or tofu. Choose calorie-free liquids such as unsweetened tea, coffee or water. Choose sugar substitutes.
THE BEST HEART CENTERS NEAR ME Heart conditions that can lead to sudden cardiac arrest A life-threatening arrhythmia usually develops in a person with a pre-existing heart condition, such as: Coronary artery disease. Most cases of sudden cardiac arrest occur in people who have coronary artery disease. In coronary artery disease, your arteries become clogged with cholesterol and other deposits, reducing blood flow to your heart. This can make it harder for your heart to conduct electrical impulses smoothly. Heart attack. If a heart attack occurs, often as a result of severe coronary artery disease, it can trigger ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac arrest. In addition, a heart attack can leave behind areas of scar tissue. Electrical short circuits around the scar tissue can lead to abnormalities in your heart rhythm. Enlarged heart (cardiomyopathy). This occurs primarily when your heart's muscular walls stretch and enlarge or thicken. In both cases, your heart's muscle is abnormal, a condition that often leads to heart tissue damage and potential arrhythmias. Valvular heart disease. Leaking or narrowing of your heart valves can lead to stretching or thickening of your heart muscle or both. When the chambers become enlarged or weakened because of stress caused by a tight or leaking valve, there's an increased risk of developing arrhythmia. Congenital heart disease. When sudden cardiac arrest occurs in children or adolescents, it may be due to a heart condition that was present at birth (congenital heart disease). Even adults who've had corrective surgery for a congenital heart defect still have a higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest. Electrical problems in the heart. In some people, the problem is in the heart's electrical system itself instead of a problem with the heart muscle or valves. These are called primary heart rhythm abnormalities and include conditions such as Brugada's syndrome and long QT syndrome.
the best heart clinics near me When Do You Need Surgery? When the heart valves are seriously damaged and impairing blood flow to the rest of the body or causing heart muscle damage, surgery to replace the defective valve may be recommended. Shortness of breath, syncope (fainting), chest pain, and heart failure are common signs of aortic valve disease. These symptoms are warning signs that the heart is working too hard to pump blood-when these symptoms occur, surgery is usually warranted. Testing to further determine if you need surgery should include an echocardiogram of the heart, as well as coronary angiography to assess for blockages in the coronary arteries. These conditions are potentially serious impediments to heart function, often hindering or reversing the natural flow of blood through the heart. Failing to fix a diseased aortic valve can be life-threatening, and untreated patients have less than a 50% survival at 2-3 years. To treat aortic valve disease, surgeons either repair the patient's own valve, or most commonly replace that valve with a tissue or mechanical substitute. Choosing between a bioprosthetic valve versus a mechanical valve is a complex decision that involves many lifestyle factors, age, and whether a patient is able to tolerate blood thinners for the rest of their life.