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heart doctors in Doddaballapur Road, Bangalore • Pericarditis Inflammation of the pericardial sac may occur as a result of scores of conditions.20 The principal causes of acute pericarditis, where chest pain has to be differentiated from ischaemia, are as follows: 1 infection: viral or bacterial, or associated with pneumonia and severe systemic symptoms, or as a complication of HIV infection or superinfection (e.g. mycobacterial) 2 systemic inflammatory disease: such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus 3 myocardial infarction (epistenocardiac pericarditis, 4 Dressler’s syndrome (after some delay following an infarct or cardiac surgery) 5 uraemia 6 malignancy (not often presenting as chest pain) or radiotherapy. A large group, resembling acute viral pericarditis clinically, remains idiopathic. Symptoms The inflammation causes chest pain that can be difficult to distinguish from that of myocardial infarction but that tends to have a number of distinct features. There may be symptoms of a viral illness or of a connective tissue disease. Pericardial pain is usually pleuritic ; that is, it is worse with respiratory movements. This is because breathing, especially deep breathing, causes the inflamed pericardial surfaces to rub together. Oddly enough, the pain is practically never pulsatile—in keeping with the heart beat. Patients with pericarditis are often more comfortable if they sit up and lean forward. The pain is usually central or left-sided, especially in those with associated pleurisy. Trapezius ridge radiation is highly characteristic of pericarditis; it does not occur in ischaemia. There may be some dyspnoea, which is at least partly a result of the discomfort of breathing.
DCardiologist in Vidyaranyapura, Bangalore • etected vascular abnormalities Calcium scoring High-resolution CT scanners can measure calcium within the coronary arteries in a single breath-hold scan. The measured calcium is given a number, the Agatston score. The presence of calcium within a coronary artery is a marker of coronary disease but not of obstructive disease. It does not give any information about the presence of soft plaque, which is more likely to be associated with an acute coronary event but a 0 score predicts a very low coronary risk. A high score has been shown to be an independent risk factor for future events.29 Prospective studies proving the value of calcium scoring have not been performed. Calcium scoring is likely to be superseded by multi-slice CT coronary angiography (p. 136), which can produce images of the coronary lumen and generate a calcium score. An elevated calcium score in an asymptomatic patient is probably best treated as an indication for aggressive risk factor management; for example, instituting statin treatment for a marginally elevated cholesterol level. Intima-media thickness High-frequency ultrasound transducers can measure accurately the thickness of the carotid intima up to its interface with the media. An intima-media thickness (IMT) of > 1.3 mm is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, which remains significant after allowing for other risk factors. Ankle brachial index The ankle brachial index (ABI) is relatively easy to measure with a sphygmomanometer and a Doppler ultrasound device. The systolic blood pressure in the arm and in the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries is compared. An ABI of < 0.9 means a stenosis of at least 50% somewhere between the aorta and the foot. The test is a reliable sign of peripheral arterial disease and thus also coronary disease. Erectile dysfunction Erectile dysfunction is a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Because the penile arteries are smaller (1–2 mm) than the carotids (5–7 mm) and coronary arteries (3 mm), plaque burden and endothelial dysfunction may cause symptoms earlier here than in the other territories. hsCRP measurements and risk of vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome) Low risk Intermediate High hsCRP level < 1 mg/L 1–3 mg/L > 3 mg/L Note: levels > 10 mg/L suggest acute inflammation and should be repeated after a few week In some studies erectile dysfunction has reliably preceded symptomatic coronary disease in twothirds of patients by an average of three years.30 A history of this problem in men indicates an increased risk of vascular events. It is strongly associated with other risk factors such as smoking and diabetes but remains significant after allowing for these. Infectious agents There is continuing mild interest in the role of infection in promoting atherosclerosis and especially unstable coronary syndromes. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori are commonly found in atheromatous plaques. It is possible one or more infectious agents could be the stimulus that sets off the inflammatory process that changes plaque structure, weakens the fibrous cap and unleashes the coagulation cascade that occludes the vessel. The ACADEMIC study was not associated with a reduction in early coronary events
DCardiologist in Vidyaranyapura, Bangalore • etected vascular abnormalities Calcium scoring High-resolution CT scanners can measure calcium within the coronary arteries in a single breath-hold scan. The measured calcium is given a number, the Agatston score. The presence of calcium within a coronary artery is a marker of coronary disease but not of obstructive disease. It does not give any information about the presence of soft plaque, which is more likely to be associated with an acute coronary event but a 0 score predicts a very low coronary risk. A high score has been shown to be an independent risk factor for future events.29 Prospective studies proving the value of calcium scoring have not been performed. Calcium scoring is likely to be superseded by multi-slice CT coronary angiography (p. 136), which can produce images of the coronary lumen and generate a calcium score. An elevated calcium score in an asymptomatic patient is probably best treated as an indication for aggressive risk factor management; for example, instituting statin treatment for a marginally elevated cholesterol level. Intima-media thickness High-frequency ultrasound transducers can measure accurately the thickness of the carotid intima up to its interface with the media. An intima-media thickness (IMT) of > 1.3 mm is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, which remains significant after allowing for other risk factors. Ankle brachial index The ankle brachial index (ABI) is relatively easy to measure with a sphygmomanometer and a Doppler ultrasound device. The systolic blood pressure in the arm and in the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries is compared. An ABI of < 0.9 means a stenosis of at least 50% somewhere between the aorta and the foot. The test is a reliable sign of peripheral arterial disease and thus also coronary disease. Erectile dysfunction Erectile dysfunction is a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Because the penile arteries are smaller (1–2 mm) than the carotids (5–7 mm) and coronary arteries (3 mm), plaque burden and endothelial dysfunction may cause symptoms earlier here than in the other territories. hsCRP measurements and risk of vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome) Low risk Intermediate High hsCRP level < 1 mg/L 1–3 mg/L > 3 mg/L Note: levels > 10 mg/L suggest acute inflammation and should be repeated after a few week In some studies erectile dysfunction has reliably preceded symptomatic coronary disease in twothirds of patients by an average of three years.30 A history of this problem in men indicates an increased risk of vascular events. It is strongly associated with other risk factors such as smoking and diabetes but remains significant after allowing for these. Infectious agents There is continuing mild interest in the role of infection in promoting atherosclerosis and especially unstable coronary syndromes. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori are commonly found in atheromatous plaques. It is possible one or more infectious agents could be the stimulus that sets off the inflammatory process that changes plaque structure, weakens the fibrous cap and unleashes the coagulation cascade that occludes the vessel. The ACADEMIC study was not associated with a reduction in early coronary events
Cardiologist in yelahanka New Town, Bangalore • Detected vascular abnormalities Calcium scoring High-resolution CT scanners can measure calcium within the coronary arteries in a single breath-hold scan. The measured calcium is given a number, the Agatston score. The presence of calcium within a coronary artery is a marker of coronary disease but not of obstructive disease. It does not give any information about the presence of soft plaque, which is more likely to be associated with an acute coronary event but a 0 score predicts a very low coronary risk. A high score has been shown to be an independent risk factor for future events.29 Prospective studies proving the value of calcium scoring have not been performed. Calcium scoring is likely to be superseded by multi-slice CT coronary angiography which can produce images of the coronary lumen and generate a calcium score. An elevated calcium score in an asymptomatic patient is probably best treated as an indication for aggressive risk factor management; for example, instituting statin treatment for a marginally elevated cholesterol level. Intima-media thickness High-frequency ultrasound transducers can measure accurately the thickness of the carotid intima up to its interface with the media. An intima-media thickness (IMT) of > 1.3 mm is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, which remains significant after allowing for other risk factors. Ankle brachial index The ankle brachial index (ABI) is relatively easy to measure with a sphygmomanometer and a Doppler ultrasound device. The systolic blood pressure in the arm and in the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries is compared. An ABI of < 0.9 means a stenosis of at least 50% somewhere between the aorta and the foot. The test is a reliable sign of peripheral arterial disease and thus also coronary disease. Erectile dysfunction Erectile dysfunction is a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Because the penile arteries are smaller (1–2 mm) than the carotids (5–7 mm) and coronary arteries (3 mm), plaque burden and endothelial dysfunction may cause symptoms earlier here than in the other territories. Table 1.14 hsCRP measurements and risk of vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome) Low risk Intermediate High hsCRP level < 1 mg/L 1–3 mg/L > 3 mg/L Note: levels > 10 mg/L suggest acute inflammation and should be repeated after a few weeks.
Cardiologist in yelahanka New Town, Bangalore • Detected vascular abnormalities Calcium scoring High-resolution CT scanners can measure calcium within the coronary arteries in a single breath-hold scan. The measured calcium is given a number, the Agatston score. The presence of calcium within a coronary artery is a marker of coronary disease but not of obstructive disease. It does not give any information about the presence of soft plaque, which is more likely to be associated with an acute coronary event but a 0 score predicts a very low coronary risk. A high score has been shown to be an independent risk factor for future events.29 Prospective studies proving the value of calcium scoring have not been performed. Calcium scoring is likely to be superseded by multi-slice CT coronary angiography which can produce images of the coronary lumen and generate a calcium score. An elevated calcium score in an asymptomatic patient is probably best treated as an indication for aggressive risk factor management; for example, instituting statin treatment for a marginally elevated cholesterol level. Intima-media thickness High-frequency ultrasound transducers can measure accurately the thickness of the carotid intima up to its interface with the media. An intima-media thickness (IMT) of > 1.3 mm is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, which remains significant after allowing for other risk factors. Ankle brachial index The ankle brachial index (ABI) is relatively easy to measure with a sphygmomanometer and a Doppler ultrasound device. The systolic blood pressure in the arm and in the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries is compared. An ABI of < 0.9 means a stenosis of at least 50% somewhere between the aorta and the foot. The test is a reliable sign of peripheral arterial disease and thus also coronary disease. Erectile dysfunction Erectile dysfunction is a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Because the penile arteries are smaller (1–2 mm) than the carotids (5–7 mm) and coronary arteries (3 mm), plaque burden and endothelial dysfunction may cause symptoms earlier here than in the other territories. Table 1.14 hsCRP measurements and risk of vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome) Low risk Intermediate High hsCRP level < 1 mg/L 1–3 mg/L > 3 mg/L Note: levels > 10 mg/L suggest acute inflammation and should be repeated after a few weeks.
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