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Important coronary risk factors 1 Existing vascular disease (coronary, cerebral or peripheral) 2 Age 3 Dyslipidaemia 4 Smoking 5 Family history 6 Hypertension 7 Male sex/hormonal factors 8 Diabetes 9 Renal impairment 10 Obesity 11 Inactivity 12 Thrombogenic factors 13 Other dietary factors 14 Homocystinaemia 15 Psychological factors 16 Elevated hsCRP 17 Abnormal CT calcium score/coronary angiogram 18 Left ventricular hypertrophy (hypertensive patients) 19 Abnormal
THE CARDIOLOGY CLINICS IN BANGALORE Important coronary risk factors 1 Existing vascular disease (coronary, cerebral or peripheral) 2 Age 3 Dyslipidaemia 4 Smoking 5 Family history 6 Hypertension 7 Male sex/hormonal factors 8 Diabetes 9 Renal impairment 10 Obesity 11 Inactivity 12 Thrombogenic factors 13 Other dietary factors 14 Homocystinaemia 15 Psychological factors 16 Elevated hsCRP 17 Abnormal CT calcium score/coronary angiogram 18 Left ventricular hypertrophy (hypertensive patients) 19 Abnormal
HEART SPECIALISTS IN HEBBAL BANGALORE Important coronary risk factors 1 Existing vascular disease (coronary, cerebral or peripheral) 2 Age 3 Dyslipidaemia 4 Smoking 5 Family history 6 Hypertension 7 Male sex/hormonal factors 8 Diabetes 9 Renal impairment 10 Obesity 11 Inactivity 12 Thrombogenic factors 13 Other dietary factors 14 Homocystinaemia 15 Psychological factors 16 Elevated hsCRP 17 Abnormal CT calcium score/coronary angiogram 18 Left ventricular hypertrophy (hypertensive patients) 19 Abnormal
HEART SPECIALISTS IN HEBBAL BANGALORE Important coronary risk factors 1 Existing vascular disease (coronary, cerebral or peripheral) 2 Age 3 Dyslipidaemia 4 Smoking 5 Family history 6 Hypertension 7 Male sex/hormonal factors 8 Diabetes 9 Renal impairment 10 Obesity 11 Inactivity 12 Thrombogenic factors 13 Other dietary factors 14 Homocystinaemia 15 Psychological factors 16 Elevated hsCRP 17 Abnormal CT calcium score/coronary angiogram 18 Left ventricular hypertrophy (hypertensive patients) 19 Abnormal
HEART SPECIALISTS IN YELAHANKA NEW TOWN BANGALORE Triglycerides The independent effect of triglyceride levels is weak, and high triglyceride levels are often associated with other risk factors (e.g. low HDLs). Secondary causes of high triglycerides are common and confuse the picture, as does the fact that serum levels can vary greatly with fasting and recent alcohol intake. The combination of high triglycerides and elevated LDL (combined dyslipidaemia) is associated with a marked increase in coronary disease risk. Isolated extremely high triglycerides (greater than 15 mmol/L) are a risk factor for pancreatitis rather than vascular disease. Modest elevations of triglycerides can usually be managed by weight control, a reduction in alcohol consumption and changes in medication. Table 1.5 Factors that affect HDL levels Factors that increase HDL levels Factors that reduce HDL levels 1 Oestrogen 2 Exercise 3 Small amounts of alcohol (10–20 g per day in men) 1 Smoking 2 Obesity 3 Inactivity 4 Hypothyroidism 5 Postmenopausal state 6 Beta-blockers Table 1.6 Factors that increase triglyceride levels 1 Obesity 2 Alcohol 3 Diabetes 4 Oestrogen (including HRT in 20% of users) 5 Diuretics 6 Beta-blockers 7 Secondary causes: • Cushing’s syndrome • acromegaly • uraemia • acute hepatitis 8 High triglycerides and low HDLs are associated with insulin resistance
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