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HEART SPEACIALISTS IN BANGALORE Stress echocardiography Ischaemic areas of myocardium are known to have reduced contraction compared with normal areas. This can be demonstrated by high-quality echocardiograms. A number of standard views of the heart are obtained and the wall is divided into regions that are assessed for reduced motion. The echo equipment must be designed to store rest images and to present them next to stress images on a split screen so that direct comparison can be made. The stress can be provided by exercise or dobutamine infusion. Exercise echocardiography is difficult to perform because of movement problems and there is quite high inter-reporter variability, but both techniques can approach the accuracy of sestamibi testing in experienced hands. It is not possible to obtain images of adequate quality in all patients.
CARDIOLOGISTS IN HEBBALA Risk stratification using myocardial perfusion scans A normal perfusion scan is associated with a good prognosis. The annual rate of myocardial infarction of cardiac death is < 1%, at least for some years. Stress echocardiography Ischaemic areas of myocardium are known to have reduced contraction compared with normal areas. This can be demonstrated by high-quality echocardiograms. A number of standard views of the heart are obtained and the wall is divided into regions that are assessed for reduced motion. The echo equipment must be designed to store rest images and to present them next to stress images on a split screen so that direct comparison can be made. The stress can be provided by exercise or dobutamine infusion. Exercise echocardiography is difficult to perform because of movement problems and there is quite high inter-reporter variability, but both techniques can approach the accuracy of sestamibi testing in experienced hands. It is not possible to obtain images of adequate quality in all patients. Coronary angiography (cardiac catheterisation) This procedure enables the cardiologist to visualise the coronary arteries It is the standard against which other less-invasive investigations are assessed. Selective catheterisation of the right and left coronary ostia is performed. Contrast is then injected into the vessels and digital tape or disc storage of the images obtained. In most hospitals the patient is admitted on the morning of the test and allowed to go home that afternoon. The procedure is most often performed through the femoral artery (Judkins technique) . This artery can be punctured through the skin under local anaesthetic. A fine softtipped guide wire is then advanced into the artery and the needle withdrawn (Seldinger method). A short guiding sheath can then be placed over the wire and long cardiac catheters advanced through this sheath along a long guide wire into the femoral artery and up via the aorta to the aortic arch. The catheter and wire are advanced under X-ray control. Usually one catheter with a curved tip (pig-tail catheter;is advanced across the aortic valve into the left ventricle where left ventricular pressures are measured via a pressure transducer connected to the other end of the catheter. Measurement of the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure gives an indication of left ventricular function. Raised end-diastolic pressure (over 15 mmHg) suggests left ventricular dysfunction . The catheter is then connected to a pressure injector. This enables injection of a large volume of contrast over a few seconds; for example, 35 mL at 15 mL/second. X-ray recording during injection produces a left ventriculogram Here left ventricular contraction can be assessed and the ejection fraction (percentage of end-diastolic volume ejected with each systole) estimated. The normal is 60% or more. The figure obtained by this method tends to be higher than that produced by the nuclear imaging method—gated blood pool scanning. The guide wire is reintroduced and the catheter withdrawn to be replaced by one shaped to
HEART SPECIALISTS IN YELAHANKA NEW TOWN BANGALORE Mitral stenosis Rheumatic mitral stenosis is rare in developed countries but is an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. Mitral stenosis is often poorly tolerated because of the shortened diastolic filling period that occurs during pregnancy. A mitral valve area of less than 1.5 cm2) means a considerable risk to the mother of pulmonary oedema as pregnancy proceeds. Even previously asymptomatic patients are at risk. Close follow-up and regular echocardiograms are indicated. Treatment to slow the heart and increase the length of diastole (beta-blockers) should be commenced if symptoms (dyspnoea) appear or the Doppler echo measurement of pulmonary artery pressure exceeds 50 mmHg Diuretics may improve symptoms but for severe stenosis balloon valvotomy can be performed during pregnancy.30 There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with the procedure, which should be performed only at an experienced centre and only for severe stenosis. Aortic stenosis Delivery is usually well tolerated by women with aortic stenosis unless they are very symptomatic. If heart failure has developed, balloon valvotomy of the valve is safer than surgical replacement. The procedure provides temporary relief of symptoms. Mechanical prosthetic valves and pregnancy
Echocardiologist in Kattigenahalli, Bangalore • Stress echocardiography Ischaemic areas of myocardium are known to have reduced contraction compared with normal areas. This can be demonstrated by high-quality echocardiograms. A number of standard views of the heart are obtained and the wall is divided into regions that are assessed for reduced motion. The echo equipment must be designed to store rest images and to present them next to stress images on a split screen so that direct comparison can be made. The stress can be provided by exercise or dobutamine infusion. Exercise echocardiography is difficult to perform because of movement problems and there is quite high inter-reporter variability, but both techniques can approach the accuracy of sestamibi testing in experienced hands. It is not possible to obtain images of adequate quality in all patients.
Echocardiologist in Kattigenahalli, Bangalore • Stress echocardiography Ischaemic areas of myocardium are known to have reduced contraction compared with normal areas. This can be demonstrated by high-quality echocardiograms. A number of standard views of the heart are obtained and the wall is divided into regions that are assessed for reduced motion. The echo equipment must be designed to store rest images and to present them next to stress images on a split screen so that direct comparison can be made. The stress can be provided by exercise or dobutamine infusion. Exercise echocardiography is difficult to perform because of movement problems and there is quite high inter-reporter variability, but both techniques can approach the accuracy of sestamibi testing in experienced hands. It is not possible to obtain images of adequate quality in all patients.
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