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HEART SPEACIALIST IN BANGALORE HYPERTENTION By definition, sinus tachycardia is a heart rate ≥ 100/minute and sinus bradycardia is a heart rate ≤ 50/minute.3 To calculate the heart rate from the ECG, the R-R interval in mm can be divided into 1500. For example, an R-R interval of 20 mm gives a rate of 75/minute and an R-R interval of 15 mm gives a rate of 100. Similarly, large 5 mm squares can be divided into 300; thus three squares give a rate of 100/minute. In regular rhythms, any two congruous points of the P-QRS-T sequence can be used to estimate the rate. An ECG ruler has a scale that enables rapid rate measurement and calculation of other intervals. With practice, the rate can be estimated at a glance.
THE HYPERDYNAMIC STATE. MI with hyperdynamic state—that is, elevation of sinus rate, arterial pressure, and cardiac index, occurring singly or together in the presence of a normal or low left ventricular filling pressure—and if other causes of tachycardia such as fever, infection, and pericarditis can be excluded, treatment with beta blockers is indicated. Presumably, the increased heart rate and blood pressure are the result of inappropriate activation of the sympathetic nervous system, possibly secondary to augmented release of catecholamines, pain and anxiety, or some combination of these.
POPULAR CARDIOLOGISTS IN H S R LAYOUT Ventricular tachycardia Ventricular tachycardia is defined as three or more ventricular ectopic beats at a rate over 100/minute. It is said to be sustained if it lasts more than 30 seconds. Most broad-complex tachycardias are ventricular (rather than supraventricular with aberrant conduction). The diagnosis of VT is greatly strengthened if there is a history of myocardial infarction or cardiac failure but, oddly enough, the patient’s haemodynamics are of no help. A number of criteria have evolved over the years to help ascertain the diagnosis of VT over aberrancy. These include: evidence of AV dissociation—P waves can be seen unrelated to the QRS complexes (they are usually visible only at relatively slow VT rates) the presence of supraventricular capture or fusion beats visible retrograde conduction with 2:1 block (P waves visible following every second complex) the presence of monophasic R, qR or QR patterns in V1, provided a septal infarction has not modified a RBBB a taller left rabbit ear in RR' or qRR' complexes in V1 n QS complexes in V1 with a slow S descent and sharp upstroke—the opposite of LBBB—or a broad small primary R wave in rS morphology (the Rosenbaum pattern) RAD in the frontal plane with LBBB-like QRS complexes
This ordinarily consists of monitoring of  is suspected. heart rate and rhythm,  repeated measurement of systemic arterial pressure by cuff,  obtaining chest radiographs to detect heart failure,  repeated auscultation of the lung fields for pulmonary congestion,  measurement of urine flow,  examination of the skin and mucous membranes for evidence of the adequacy of perfusion, and
Average reductions in coronary events (benefits are greatest in patients with highest total risk) 1 Smoking cessation: 50% reduction in coronary events6 2 Low-dose aspirin in high-risk patients: 25% reduction in coronary events7 3 20% reduction in total cholesterol with statin treatment: 30% reduction in coronary events8 4 Treatment with pravastatin after acute coronary events: 22% reduction in mortality9 5 5–6 mmHg reduction in blood pressure: 15% reduction in coronary events (40% risk reduction for stroke)10 6 30 minutes of moderate exercise a day: 18% reduction in coronary events11 CARDIAC SPEACIALIST IN HEBBALA
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