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POPULAR CARDIOLOGISTS IN SAHAKARANAGAR Cardiomyopathies and valvular heart disease Regardless of the status of the coronary arterial tree, both primary and secondary heart muscle disease can produce anginal pain through the imbalance of the oxygen demand and supply. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a relatively common cause of angina in the presence of normal coronary arteries. Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular cause of exertional chest tightness, which is probably due to myocardial ischaemia Exertional chest pain, which may be due to right ventricular angina, is a feature of pulmonary hypertension . Syndrome X There is some confusion regarding the ‘metabolic’ and ‘cardiac’ varieties. The former is a combination of insulin resistance, obesity, pro-inflammatory state and so on, leading to raised cardiovascular risk in the sufferers. The latter is, or should be, a form of stable effort angina that can be ascribed to coronary microvascular malfunction.23 The epicardial coronary tree is normal and the diagnosis is rather difficult to make except by exclusion. Acute coronary syndromes The terminology used to describe acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) continues to evolve as clinicians attempt to adjust to the accumulating evidence of the usefulness of modern cardiac markers and the treatment implications of different results. The most recent terminology is designed to help with treatment decisions based on the earliest clinical information from the patient. This comes from the history and the ECG. When the patient’s symptoms suggest an acute coronary syndrome, the first decisions about diagnosis and treatment are based on the ECG. If there is ST elevation present in a pattern to suggest myocardial infarction, the diagnosis is of ‘ST elevation myocardial infarction’ (STEMI). If there is no ST elevation, the initial diagnosis is of ‘non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome’ (NSTEACS).24 This elegant phrase has replaced ‘non-ST elevation myocardial infarction’ (non- STEMI). The reason is that the diagnosis of infarction cannot be made in the absence of ST elevation until cardiac marker estimations are available. The decisions about treatment, however, need to be made immediately and are based on symptoms and ECG changes.
HEART DOCTORS IN CHIKKAJALA, BANGALORE; Pulmonary hypertension Pulmonary hypertension is an uncommon but important cause of dyspnoea. Many patients with this chronic and often severe illness will have raised pulmonary artery pressures as a result of a cardiac or respiratory illness. Other patients may present with increasing dyspnoea without an obvious cardiac or respiratory problem. Idiopathic (primary) pulmonary hypertension (IPH) is diagnosed only when other causes of pulmonary hypertension have been excluded. By definition, pulmonary hypertension is present when the mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) exceeds 25 mmHg at rest or 30 mmHg during exercise. The classification of pulmonary hypertension has been revised. The Venice classification was released in 2003. The term ‘primary pulmonary hypertension’ has been replaced with ‘idiopathic pulmonary hypertension’ . Patients may have used fenfluramine or phenermine (appetite-suppressing drugs), or both. Use of these drugs for long periods has been associated with the greatest risk of developing pulmonary hypertension. In cases of IPH there may be a family history (6%; autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance, 20–80%). The majority of familial cases are associates with a mutation on the BMPR2 gene. There may be associated symptoms including fatigue, chest pain, syncope and oedema. Cough and haemoptysis can be present.
PAPULAR CARDIOLOGISTS IN SAHAKARANAGAR Myocardial infarction and ischaemia Recognition of ischaemic changes has gained in importance from the recent increase in percutaneous coronary interventions. It still retains its established importance in other aspects of the management of acute coronary syndromes. Decisions on the immediate treatment of patients with chest pain are made according to findings on the ECG. This is a cheap test that can be performed quickly at the bedside and interpreted without delay
THE BEST CARDIOLOGISTS IN YELAHANKA Indications for coronary angiography 1 Angina not responding to medical treatment in a patient without contraindications (e.g. extreme old age—usually older than about 85 these days—or severe co-morbidities) to cardiac surgery or angioplasty. 2 Continuing chest pain whose cause is not clear despite non-invasive investigations. The procedure may well be worthwhile if it reveals normal coronary arteries and prevents a patient being treated unnecessarily with more and more anti-anginal drugs. Non-invasive investigations are more often equivocal in women, and more women than men are found to have normal coronaries at angiography. 3 Preparation of a patient older than 35 or so for some other cardiac surgery (e.g. valve replacement). The surgeon needs to know whether significant coronary disease is present so that coronary grafting can be performed at the time of valve surgery. Otherwise, patients are at risk of ischaemic problems in the post-operative period. 4 Diagnosis of cardiomyopathy (p. 267) by excluding coronary artery disease and infarction as the cause of angina or cardiac failure. These patients may benefit from revascularisation if significant coronary disease is also present (‘ischaemic cardiomyopathy’). 5 Investigation of patients following myocardial infarction. Routine transfer to a centre with angiographic facilities after successful thrombolytic treatment is a grade D recommendation. There is no proof that a patient without continuing ischaemia has an improved prognosis when angiography and revascularisation are carried out routinely after infarction. The Open Artery Trial results suggest there is no benefit compared with optimal medical treatment for patients without ischaemic symptoms in having an occluded vessel opened five days or more after an infarction. However, spontaneous or induced ischaemia (by modified stress testing or perfusion imaging) leads to a grade B recommendation for angiography and intervention. The management of post-infarct patients is definitely easier if the coronary anatomy is known, and many units adopt the policy of early (within a week) angiography of infarct patients without contraindications to revascularisation. 6 Non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (p. 156). 7 Acute myocardial infarction in a unit where primary angioplasty can be performed
IHEART SPECIALISTS IN HEBBALA ndications for coronary angiography 1 Angina not responding to medical treatment in a patient without contraindications (e.g. extreme old age—usually older than about 85 these days—or severe co-morbidities) to cardiac surgery or angioplasty. 2 Continuing chest pain whose cause is not clear despite non-invasive investigations. The procedure may well be worthwhile if it reveals normal coronary arteries and prevents a patient being treated unnecessarily with more and more anti-anginal drugs. Non-invasive investigations are more often equivocal in women, and more women than men are found to have normal coronaries at angiography. 3 Preparation of a patient older than 35 or so for some other cardiac surgery (e.g. valve replacement). The surgeon needs to know whether significant coronary disease is present so that coronary grafting can be performed at the time of valve surgery. Otherwise, patients are at risk of ischaemic problems in the post-operative period. 4 Diagnosis of cardiomyopathy (p. 267) by excluding coronary artery disease and infarction as the cause of angina or cardiac failure. These patients may benefit from revascularisation if significant coronary disease is also present (‘ischaemic cardiomyopathy’). 5 Investigation of patients following myocardial infarction. Routine transfer to a centre with angiographic facilities after successful thrombolytic treatment is a grade D recommendation. There is no proof that a patient without continuing ischaemia has an improved prognosis when angiography and revascularisation are carried out routinely after infarction. The Open Artery Trial results suggest there is no benefit compared with optimal medical treatment for patients without ischaemic symptoms in having an occluded vessel opened five days or more after an infarction. However, spontaneous or induced ischaemia (by modified stress testing or perfusion imaging) leads to a grade B recommendation for angiography and intervention. The management of post-infarct patients is definitely easier if the coronary anatomy is known, and many units adopt the policy of early (within a week) angiography of infarct patients without contraindications to revascularisation. 6 Non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes . 7 Acute myocardial infarction in a unit where primary angioplasty can be performed . Risks of cardiac catheterisation Cardiac catheterisation is an invasive procedure and patients must be aware of
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